What are Hindi Grammars:
Grammar is the discipline through which we speak, write, and understand the pure language of a language.
These rules of language structure are limited and language expressions are unlimited. One rule governs innumerable expressions. The rules under which these rules of language are studied together are called grammar.
In fact, grammar compiles and analyses language rules and fixes these rules. These grammar rules make the language standard and defined. Grammar itself does not make rules of language. The grammatical rules determine grammatical rules by using the form of language that people of a linguistic society use. Hence it can be said that
There are four main parts of the language - letters, words, and sentences. Hence there are mainly four divisions of grammar-
(1) Alphabets and Numbers (Phonology)
(2) Words (Etymology)
(3) Syntax and Sentences
(1) Alphabets and Numbers (Phonology):
The standard Hindi alphabet, as agreed by the Government of India, has 11 vowels and 35 consonants. However, the traditional Hindi alphabet is considered to be made of 13 vowels and consonants. the letters अं [am] and अः [aha] are counted as vowels in traditional Hindi and as consonants in standard Hindi. It also includes two letters ड़ [rr] and ढ़ [rh] which are counted as consonants in the standard official Hindi alphabet.
In popular and traditional teachings, three extra consonants are used. They are called conjuncts and are a combination of two consonants. This happens when successive consonants with no vowel between them physically join together,
- क्ष [ksh] is a combination of क् [k], ष [sh] and अ [a]
- त्र [tr] is a combination of त् [t], र् [r] and अ [a]
- श्र [shra] is a combination of श् [s], र् [r] and अ [a]
- ज्ञ [jna] or [gya] is a combination of ज् [j], ञ [n] and अ [a]
Classification of consonants by pronunciation place:
When pronouncing consonants, the air hits different parts of the mouth. The classification of consonants based on the organs of pronunciation is as follows:
(i) Kantya कंठ्य (from the throat) - क, ख, ग, घ, ङ
(ii) Talavya तालव्य (from hard palate) - च, छ, ज, झ, ञ, य, श
(iii) Murtanya मूर्धन्य (from the front part of the hard palate) - ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, ड़, ढ़, ष
(iv) Dental दंत्य (from teeth) - त, थ, द, ध, न
(v) Vartasya वर्त्सय (from the origin of teeth) - स, ज, र, ल
(vi) Astha ओष्ठय (with both lips) - प, फ, ब, भ, म
(vii) Dentistry दंतौष्ठय (from lower lip and upper teeth) - व, फ
(viii) Vowel instrument स्वर यंत्र से – ह
Combined consonants, dual consonants, conjuncts:
Combined consonants संयुक्त व्यंजन:-
The consonants which are made of a combination of two or more consonants are called joint consonants.
These are four in number:
क्ष = क् + ष + अ = क्ष (रक्षक (protector), भक्षक (eater), क्षोभ (rage), क्षय (decay))
त्र = त् + र् + अ = त्र (पत्रिका (magazine), त्राण train, सर्वत्र universal, त्रिकोण triangle)
ज्ञ = ज् + ञ + अ = ज्ञ (सर्वज्ञ omniscient, ज्ञाता knowledgeable, विज्ञान science, विज्ञापन advertising)
श्र = श् + र् + अ = श्र (श्रीमती Shrimati, श्रम labour, परिश्रम hard work , श्रवण hearing)
The combined consonant consists of the first consonant without vowels and the second consonant with vowels.
Dual-consonant द्वित्व व्यंजन:-
When the same letter is used twice in the word, then it is called dual-consonant.
For example, there is a dual-use of 'L' in cats and 'A' in Pakka.
In the dual-consonant also, the first consonant is without vowel and the second consonant is with a vowel.
Conjunct संयुक्ताक्षर: -
When a vowel-less consonant meets the consonant with another vowel, then it is called conjunct.
जैसे- क् + त = क्त = संयुक्त (Joint )
स् + थ = स्थ = स्थान (place)
स् + व = स्व = स्वाद (taste)
द् + ध = द्ध = शुद्ध (pure)
Here two different dishes do not make any new dishes together.
(2) शब्द विचार/Shabad Vichar (Etymology) Words:
The word 'letter' is commonly used for vowels and consonants. Like - his letters are very beautiful. In grammar, the smallest unit of sound is called syllable which is pronounced with a jerk. Consonants in a letter can be multiple but the vowel is usually the same. Hindi also has one letter words and many letters.
See the example-
- एक अक्षर वाले शब्द/Single letter words; आ (Come), खा (eat), जो (whatever), तो (then)
- दो अक्षरों वाले शब्द /Two letter words; मित्र (Friend), गति (speed), काला (black), मान (value)
- तीन अक्षरों वाले शब्द/Three letter words; कविता (Poetry) , बिजली (lightning), कमान (command)
- चार अक्षरों वाले शब्द/Four letter words; अजगर (Python), पकवान (dish), समवेत (samvet)
- पाँच अक्षरों वाले शब्द/Five letter words; मनमोहन (Manmohan), जगमगाना (Jagamgana) etc.
In Hindi grammar the important terms which make you to known about it in a brief and help you more to understand the language. These words lead to begin and to complete the sentence meanwhile makes you think about the situation. Terms like Adjectives, Adverb, Prepositions, Conjuncts,…. Then the commonly used words will be very useful in your daily life and in the workplace. Here we give you all types of daily using words and their meanings, here you can find many category lists in our MeraHindi. Ex, Flowers, Tree, Nature, Festivals, Bharath Temples,… In this, the composition of words, their differences, word-wealth, and their usage are considered.
(3) वाक्य विचार/ Vakya vichar (Syntax/Sentence)
A sentence is formed by mixing many words. These words together make a sentence. In this, the sentence and its parts, phrase and punctuation, etc. are considered.
The group of words that can understand the whole thing is called 'Sentence'. A phrase consisting of a verb that expresses the idea in its entirety is called a 'sentence'. The systematic set of meaningful words that reveal the expected meaning is called a sentence. Like - Vijay is playing, the girl is dancing.
The Sentence has two distinctions -
(1) Subject उद्देश्य
(2) Predicate विद्येय
(1) Subject उद्देश्य: -
A subject that has just one noun as the focus of the sentence. A subject is a noun, which is a person, place, thing, or idea. In the sentence, the subject of which something is said is called the objective. Which tells about whom something is told, it is called objective.
पूनम किताब पढ़ती है। सचिन दौड़ता है।
Poonam reads the book. Sachin runs.
It is mentioned in this sentence about Poonam and Sachin. Hence, this is the purpose. Under this comes the expanse of the doer and doer, such as - 'a person who works hard' is always successful. The extension of the doer (person) in this sentence is 'toiling'.
Part of the objective
The purpose has two parts -
(i) Karta कर्ता and
(ii) Adjective of Karta or the word related to Karta.
(2) Predicate विद्येय: -
The predicate is the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject. It includes the verb and anything modifying it. This is also called the complete predicate. Whatever is said about the purpose.
पूनम किताब पढ़ती है।
Poonam reads the book.
In this sentence, 'Kitab readi' is predicate as it is said about Poonam (purpose).
whatever is left in the sentence after separating the subject (objective) of the sentence, it is called vyayya. Under this comes the expansion of predicate.
लंबे बालों वाली लड़की 'अभी एक बच्चे के साथ दौड़ते हुए उधर गई'।
A girl with long hair 'just went running with a child'.
In this sentence, the predicate (gai) is expanded to 'just running around with a child'.
In prescriptive sentences, there is a study, but the purpose is hidden.
to go there.
खड़े हो जाओ।
In both these sentences, the purpose for which the command is given is 'the person who does not go there' (you) and 'stand up' (you or you) means that the purpose is not visible but hidden.
Hindi grammar features हिन्दी व्याकरण की विशेषताएँ :-
Hindi-grammar, despite being based on Sanskrit grammar, has its own independent characteristics. Hindi has inherited Sanskrit. Sanskrit grammar is also no less important in this. Pt. Kishoridas Vajpayee has written that "Hindi has made its grammar mostly on the basis of Sanskrit grammar - verbs are based on monolithic Sanskrit grammar, but sometimes there are passages too." Margadhan has happened where Hindi has taken a simpler path than Sanskrit. '' Sound ध्वनि and Script लिपि :-
Sound ध्वनि: -
Sounds are of both humans and animals. The dog barking and the cat meowing are the sounds emanating from the animal's mouth. Sound is also of inanimate objects. Such as the velocity of water, the vibration of object, etc.
In grammar, only the sounds emanating or pronounced from the mouth of a human being are considered. There are many types of sounds pronounced by humans. One is that which emanates from a particular function of man. Like - the sound of walking.
Secondly, they are the sounds, which originate from the unwilling actions of a man; Such as snoring or yawning. The third are those produced by the natural actions of a man; Like - groaning. The fourth is the sounds that a person utters through his mouth at will. We call them speech or voice. The first three types of sounds are redundant. Voice can be both meaningful and meaningless. The sloppy speech can be used to whistle or sing a nonsensical song. Meaningful speech is called language or style. Through this, we express our desires, perceptions or experiences. Dialects are made up of words and by the combination of word sounds.
Although there is a similarity in the anatomy of humans, there is a difference in their dialects or languages. Not only this, differences are also found in the local forms of a language. But this difference is not found in the dialects of animals. The language of man originated verbally. The practice of writing languages began long after their creation. This is when the man felt a strong desire to preserve his feelings, thoughts, and beliefs.
Initially, the writing was used with syntactic symbols, and scripts were created after the formation of a syllable and a sound mark respectively. The signs kept changing. Current scripts are the final forms of symbols. However, this work is not over yet. For example, in the present tense, some changes are being made in the Hindi script. The Hindi language was written in the Devanagari script. It has its own script.
Script लिपि : -
There are sounds in oral or perceived language, in written language, those sounds are revealed by special shapes or characters. This way of writing a language is 'script'. The script of the Hindi language is 'Devanagari'. English is written in 'Roman script' and Urdu in 'Persian' (Persian) script.
Literature साहित्य :-
The definition of literature has been given in many ways. In general, we can say that the creation of beautiful words with a beautiful meaning, which will enlighten the mind and also be beneficial for society, is called literature.
In Hindi, the writings of poets like Kabir, Sur, Tulsi, Jaishankar Prasad, Nirala, and storytellers and novelists like Premchand can be taken as examples of literature.