Sentence Formation in Hindi

  • See sentence formation
  • How to build sentences in Hindi
  • Hindi Verbs
  • Hindi tenses

In day-to-day life mostly we use to communicate with sentences (Group of words) in different forms, the basic forms of sentences mainly based on two classification,

  1. By their Construction and
  2. By their Meaning.

previously we have learnt how sentences are made and the main components it should contains like verb, object, subject,… here we are going to teach you what are the types of sentence.

Types of Hindi Sentences.

1.Based on their construction, it comes under three types as follows

  • Simple Sentence
  • Compound Sentence
  • Complex Sentence

a) Simple Sentence (साधारण वाक्य/Sadharan vakya)

A simple sentence structure contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses.


I run.

This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject, I, and one verb, run.

The girl ran into her bedroom.

This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject, girl, and one predicate, ran into her bedroom. The predicate is a verb phrase that consists of more than one word.

In the backyard, the dog barked and howled at the cat.

This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject, dog, and one predicate, barked and howled at the cat. This predicate has two verbs, known as a compound predicate: barked and howled. This compound verb should not be confused with a compound sentence. In the backyard and at the cat are prepositional phrases. A sentence which contains only one clause of a subject, a verb and expresses a complete thought or an idea with the help of a subject and verb is called Simple Sentence.

b) Compound Sentence. (संयुक्त वाक्य/ Sanyukt vakya)

A compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a semicolon that functions as a conjunction, a colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences when the second sentence explains or illustrates the first sentence and no coordinating conjunction is being used to connect the sentences, or a conjunctive adverb preceded by a semicolon. A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence. Conjunctions are words such as and, but, or, nor, so, and yet.


I started on time, but I arrived late.

I will accept your offer or decline it; these are the two options.

The law was passed: from April 1, all cars would have to be tested.

The war was lost; consequently, the whole country was occupied.

The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses without the addition of an appropriate conjunction is called a comma splice and is generally considered an error (when used in the English language).


The sun was shining, everyone appeared happy.

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses,

    Based on their meaning, it comes under six types as follows

    c) Complex Sentence(मिश्रित वाक्य/ Mishrit vakya)

    A complex sentence has one or more dependent clauses (also called subordinate clauses). Since a dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence, complex sentences must also have at least one independent clause. In short, a sentence with one or more dependent clauses and at least one independent clause is a complex sentence. A sentence with two or more independent clauses plus one or more dependent clauses is called compound-complex or complex-compound.

    In addition to a subject and a verb, dependent clauses contain a subordinating conjunction or similar word. There are a large number of subordinating conjunctions in English. Some of these give the clause an adverbial function, specifying time, place, or manner. Such clauses are called adverbial clauses.

    • When I stepped out into the bright sunlight, from the darkness of the movie house, I had only two things on my mind. (S. E. Hinton, The Outsiders)

    This complex sentence contains an adverbial clause, When I stepped out into the bright sunlight from the darkness of the movie house. The adverbial clause describes when the action of the main clause, I had only two things on my mind, took place.

    A relative clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun or noun phrase in the independent clause. In other words, the relative clause functions similar to an adjective.

    • Let him who has been deceived complain. (Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote)
    • You, who have never known your family, see them standing around you. (J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)

    In the first example, the restrictive relative clause who has been deceived specifies or defines the meaning of him in the independent clause, Let him complain. In the second example, the non-restrictive relative clause who have never known your family describes you in the independent clause, You see them standing around you.

    A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions like a noun. A noun clause may function as the subject of a clause, or as a predicate nominative or an object.

    • What she had realized was that love was that moment when your heart was about to burst. (Stieg Larsson, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo)

    In this sentence the independent clause contains two noun clauses. The noun clause What she had realized serves as the subject of the verb was, and that love was that moment serves as complement. The sentence also contains a relative clause, when your heart was about to burst. A Complex sentence consists of at least one independent clause with at least one dependent clause,

    Based on their meaning, it comes under six types as follows

    2.1. Affirmative Sentence

    2.2. Interrogative Sentence

    • Imperative Sentence (आदेशसूचकवाक्यआज्ञावाचकवाक्य)
    • Exclamatory Sentence( विस्मयादिबोधकवाक्य)
    • Optative Sentence (इच्छावाचकवाक्य)
    • Negative Sentence

    1. Affirmative Sentence

    Affirmative Sentence will express the valid true or a falsity, its whatever may be these sentence will always affirms something it contains the truth, which agrees with or supports a given proposition. Special affirmative and negative words (particles) are often found in responses to questions, and sometimes to other assertions by way of agreement or disagreement. In English, these are yes and no respectively, in French oui, si and non, in Swedish ja, jo and nej, and so on. Not all languages make such common use of particles of this type; in some (such as Welsh) it is more common to repeat the verb or another part of the predicate, with or without negation accordingly.

    Complications sometimes arise in the case of responses to negative statements or questions; in some cases the response that confirms a negative statement is the negative particle (as in English: "You're not going out? No."), but in some languages this is reversed. Some languages have a distinct form to answer a negative question, such as French si and Swedish jo (these serve to contradict the negative statement suggested by the first speaker).

    2. Interrogative Sentence

    An interrogative sentence is a sentence that asks a question. The term is used in grammar to refer to features that form questions. Thus, an interrogative sentence is a sentence whose grammatical form shows that it is a question. Such sentences may exhibit an interrogative grammatical mood.[1] This applies particularly to languages that use different inflected verb forms to make questions.

    Interrogative sentences can serve as yes–no questions or as wh-questions, the latter being formed using an interrogative word such as who, which, where or how to specify the information required. Different languages have various ways of forming questions, such as word order or the insertion of interrogative particles. Questions are frequently marked by intonation, in particular a rising intonation pattern – in some languages this may be the sole method of distinguishing a yes–no question from a declarative statement. Interrogative mood or other interrogative forms may be denoted by the glossing abbreviation INT.

    An interrogative sentence asks a question and hence ends with a question mark. It always universally ends in a rising inflection, typically marked by inversion of the subject and predicate, that is, the first verb in a verb phrase appears before the subject.

    3. Imperative Sentence

    The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

    An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the English sentence "Leave!" Such imperatives imply a second-person subject (you), but some other languages also have first- and third-person imperatives, with the meaning of "let's (do something)" or "let him/her/them (do something)" (the forms may alternatively be called cohortative and jussive).

    Imperative mood can be denoted by the glossing abbreviation IMP. It is one of the irrealis moods.

    English usually omits the subject pronoun in imperative sentences:

    • You work hard. (indicative)
    • Work hard! (imperative; subject pronoun you omitted)

    However, it is possible to include the you in imperative sentences for emphasis.

    English imperatives are negated using don't (as in "Don't work!") This is a case of do-support as found in indicative clauses; however in the imperative it applies even in the case of the verb be (which does not use do-support in the indicative):

    • You are not late. (indicative)
    • Don't be late! (imperative)

    It is also possible to use do-support in affirmative imperatives, for emphasis or (sometimes) politeness: "Do be quiet!"; "Do help yourself!".

    The subject you may be included for emphasis in negated imperatives as well, following don't: "Don't you dare do that again!"

    An imperative sentence expresses a command, order, request, advice, suggestion etc. Here the subject is invariably the second person pronoun you, which is generally unexpressed. Words like please, kindly are to be appended to an imperative indicating request.

    Ex please open the door. Open the door, please

    4. Exclamatory Sentence

    Exclamatory sentence express a wide variety of emotions like sudden surprise, delight, pain, anger, disgust etc. exclamation is a more forceful version of a declarative sentence, it always ends with the sign of exclamation.

    An exclamative or exclamatory sentence is released because of, and expresses strong emotion. They many times feel like involuntary reactions to a situation, yet they can technically be stifled if need be. And while exclamatives most usually manifest themselves as one or two word interjections, they can also come as major sentences. They are essentially unfiltered vocalizations of our feelings, and a form of self-talk because they are directed either at the speaker themself or at nobody in particular. In punctuation, an exclamative is ended with an exclamation mark.[citation needed]

    • Ouch!
    • I'll never finish this paper in time!

    5. Optative Sentence

    The optative mood (abbreviated OPT) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. It is similar to the cohortative mood, and is closely related to the subjunctive mood.

    English has no morphological optative, but there are various constructions which impute an optative meaning. One uses the modal verb may, e.g. May you have a long life! Another uses the phrase if only with a verb in the past or past subjunctive, e.g. If only I were rich! Another uses the present subjunctive, e.g. God save the Queen!

    The sentence which expresses a prayer, keen wish, curse etc. is called an optative sentence. This kind of sentence generally starts with 'may' and 'wish'. Sometimes, 'may' remains hidden.

    The optative is a category of grammatical mood that expresses a wish, hope, or desire, as in this meditative blessing: ... In English grammar, the subjunctive form of the verb is sometimes used in optative expressions, such as "God help us!"

    6. Negative Sentence

    A negative sentence is a sentence that states that something is false. In English, we create negative sentences by adding the word 'not' after the auxiliary, or helping, verb. An example of an auxiliary verb is the helping verb 'be.'

    The most common way to make a phrase negative is by using "not." Generally, "not" follows an auxiliary verb ("to be", "to do") or a modal (shall, must, might, will, etc.) even if the verb adds no meaning to the sentence. When no modal is present or appropriate, we use the verb "to do".

    A negative sentence is a sentence that states that something is false. In English, we create negative sentences by adding the word 'not' after the auxiliary, or helping, verb. An example of an auxiliary verb is the helping verb 'be.'

    affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively AFF and NEG) are the ways that grammar encodes negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances. Essentially an affirmative (positive) form is used to express the validity or truth of a basic assertion, while a negative form expresses its falsity. Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.

    The grammatical category associated and with affirmative and negative is called polarity. This means that a sentence, verb phrase, etc. may be said to have either affirmative or negative polarity (its polarity may be either affirmative or negative). Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate. The process of converting affirmative to negative is called negation – the grammatical rules for negation vary from language to language, and a given language may have more than one method of doing so.

    Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.