How Sentence Construction is made in Hindi?

English and Hindi differ on many points when it comes to the structure of sentences. The order of the words being only one side of it, Hindi nouns and adjective are also gendered, something that English speakers might find confusing. Here we will discuss the different types of sentence constructions,

  1. Copular Sentences
  2. Verbal Sentences
    • 2.1 Direct Object
    • 2.2 Indirect Object
  3. Negation Sentences
    • 3.1 Sentential Negation
    • 3.2 Constituent Negation
    • 3.3 Double/Multiple Negation
    • 3.4 Negation and Coordination and
    • 3.5 Negation and Subordination
  4. Reflexives Sentences
  5. Reciprocals Sentences
  6. Equativessentences
  7. Comparison Sentences
  8. Superlatives Sentences and
  9. Coordination Sentences
    • 8.1 Coordination and Accompaniment and
    • 8.2 Structural Constraints
Subject Verb OBject Complement Adverb Ajective Indirect object Direct object

1. Copular Sentences:

A copula is often a verb or a verb-like word, though this is not universally the case.A verb that is a copula is sometimes called a copulative or copular verb. In English primary educationgrammar courses, a copula is often called a linking verb. In other languages, copulas show more resemblances to pronouns.

Most languages have one main copula, although some have more than one, and some have none. In the case of English, this is the verb to be. While the term copula is generally used to refer to such principal forms, it may also be used to refer to some other verbs with similar functions, like become, get, feel and seem in English (these may also be called "semi-copulas" or "pseudo-copulas").

The verb होना hona: 'to be' is employed in copular sentences. The copula may take apredicate noun, predicate adjective, participle, ora predicate adverb as a complement.

Predicate noun

1. वह मुनीम है

vah Muneem hai

He is a Accountant.

Predicate adjective

2. सेनथिल लंबी है

senthil lambee hai.

Senthil is tall.

Predicate adverbial (participle)

3. वैशु खड़ा है

vaishu khada hai

Vaishu is standing.

There are two types of predicate adjectival copular sentences: (a) those which change for gender and number of the nouns they modify and (b) those which do not. The adjective लंबा lamba: 'tall' falls intothe first category, and the adjective सफेद safed 'white' falls into the second.

Predicate adverbial (participle)

4.यह सफेद फूल है

yeh safed phul hai.

This isa white flower.

4a. ये सफेद फूल हैं

ye safed phul hain.

These are white flowers.

4b. यह सफेद कमीज़ है

yeh safed kameezha

This is a white shirt.

The copular verb must be retained in both affirmative (positive) as well as negative sentences. In the case of co-ordinate structures, it is optionally deleted.

5. वैशु डॉक्टर है

vaishudaktar hai

Vaishu is a doctor.

6. कौसल्या गायक नहींहै

kousalya gaayak nahi hai.

Kousalya is not a Singer.

7. मगुनधाऔर मुकेश डॉक्टर हैं

mugundhaaur mugundhadaktar hai

Mugundhaand Mukesh are doctors.

2. Verbal Sentences:

Verbal phrases can be grouped into three categories based on theclassification of their verbs as simple, conjunct, or compound. Thefirst category has only one verbal root as in (1).

1. मैंने किताब पढ़ी |

Maine kithaab padhee.

I read a book.

The second category is formed by combining a noun/adjective plus the verb करना karnaa 'to do', or होना hona 'to be'. (i.e. कामकरना kaam karnaa 'to work', मेहनतकरना mehnat karnaa 'to work hard', साफहोना saph hona 'to be clear' ताकतहोना taakat hona 'to bestrong/healthy'.)

2. उसने मेहनतकी |

usne mehnat kee.

He worked hard.

3. मैंने चिट्ठी लिखदी |

maine chitthi likh dee.

I wrote the letter.

The subject of a transitive verb in the past tense is in the oblique case, followed by the case sign or the post position नेne.

4.लड़कों/लड़कियों नेअखवार पढ़ा |

ladkon/ladkiyon ne akhavaar padhaa.

The boys/girls read the newspaper.

5. मैंने/हमने फिल्म देखी |

maine/humne philm dekhee.

I/we saw a film.

6. तूने/तुमने/आपनेकिताबपढ़ी |

thoone/thumne/aapne kithaab padhee.

You reada book.

7. तुमने/आपने कुर्सी देखी |

thumne/aapne kursee dekhee.

You saw a chair.

The plural forms of personal pronouns are used as honorific singular/plural subjects as well. Psychological predicates such as ग़ुस्साआना gussaaaana 'to be angry or irritated', and लगना lagnaa 'seem' always take a dative subject using a dative case marker and the post position को ko.

8. जवहरको गुस्सा आया|

jawaharko gussaa aayaa.

Jawahar was angry.

9. उसे चोट लगी |

use chot lagee.

He got injured.

2.1. Direct Object:

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject. There is thus a primary distinction between subjects and objects that is understood in terms of the action expressed by the verb, e.g. Tom studies grammar—Tom is the subject and grammar is the object. Traditional sentence structure divides the simple sentence into a subject and a predicate, whereby the object is taken to be part of the predicate. Many modern theories of grammar (e.g. dependency grammars), in contrast, take the object to be a verb argument like the subject, the difference between them being mainly just their prominence; the subject is ranked higher than the object and is thus more prominent.

The main verb in a clause determines whether and what objects are present. Transitive verbs require the presence of an object, whereas intransitive verbs block the appearance of an object. The term complement overlaps in meaning with object: all objects are complements, but not vice versa. The objects that verb's do and do not take is explored in detail in valency theory.

Verbs are conventionally divided into intransitive and transitive on the basis of whether they take a noun phrase as an object. Transitive verbs take noun phrases as their object and intransitive verbs do not. In certain cases, the objects are understood and they do not appear at the surface level. For example, see the use of the transitive verbs कहना kahnaa'to say' and पूछना poochnaa 'to ask' in sentences (10) and (11) below.

10. मैंने ही |

maine kahee.

I said (it) to her.

11. उसने पू छा |

usne poochaa.

He asked (it to) him.

In (10), the verb कहना kahnaa is inflected for an implied generic feminine object. Similarly, in (11), the verb पूछना poochna is inflected for an implied generic masculine object. These sentences can be completed as follows.

10a. मैंने उससेअपनीबात कही |

maine usse apnee baat kahee.

I told him/her my story.

11a. उसने हालचाल पूछा |

usne haalchaal poocha.

He/she asked (him/her) welfare.

2.2. Indirect Object:

Type Description Example

Direct object Entity acted upon Sam fed the dogs.

Indirect object Entity indirectly affected by the action She sent hima present.

The descriptions "entity acted upon" and "entity indirectly affected by the action" are merely loose orientation points. Beyond basic examples such as those provided in the table, these orientation points are not much help when the goal is to determine whether a given object should be viewed as direct or indirect. One rule of thumb for English, however, is that an indirect object is not present unless a direct object is also present, and if both are present, the indirect object precedes the direct object.

The traditional grammar of the English language also accounts for the prepositional object, which refers to the word or phrase introduced by a preposition, e.g. Lucy in the sentence She is waiting for Lucy. However, in linguistic typology the term "object" is reserved for arguments of verbs, and in the case of prepositions (and other adpositions) usually the term prepositional or adpositional complement is used.

The term oblique object is also employed at times, although what exactly is meant varies from author to author. Some understand it to be an umbrella term denoting all objects (direct, indirect, and prepositional), whereas others use the term to denote just a prepositional object.

Whenever direct and indirect objects occur in a sentence, the indirect object receives the dative case markings. The order of the direct and indirect object in a sentence mainly depends on the emphasis given to these constituents in a given sentence. When animate indirect objects precede direct objects, they get extra emphasis. Notice the following examples of sentences using indirect objects in the dative case.

12.मैंने साइबालाजि को किताबदी|

maine sai balajiko kitaab dee.

I gave Sai Balaji a book.

13. सेकरनेअपनीपलीके लिएशाल खरीदा |

Sekarne apnee palee ke liye shal khareedaa.

Sekar bought his wife a shawl.

14. कृतिका नेमुझे खाना खिलाया |

krithikane mujhe khaanaa khilaayaa.

Krithika offered the food tome.

3. Negation Sentences:

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively AFF and NEG) are the ways that grammar encodes negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances. Essentially an affirmative (positive) form is used to express the validity or truth of a basic assertion, while a negative form expresses its falsity. Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.

The grammatical category associated and with affirmative and negative is called polarity. This means that a sentence, verb phrase, etc. may be said to have either affirmative or negative polarity (its polarity may be either affirmative or negative). Affirmative is typically the unmarked polarity, whereas a negative statement is marked in some way, whether by a negating word or particle such as English not, an affix such as Japanese -nai, or by other means, which reverses the meaning of the predicate. The process of converting affirmative to negative is called negation – the grammatical rules for negation vary from language to language, and a given language may have more than one method of doing so. Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.

3.1.Sentential Negation:

Sentential negation is expressed by the negative particles नहीं nahinot, मत mat don't, and नna. The negative particle नहीं nahi isadded before the main verb, which may or may not be followed byan auxiliary verb.

1. वह आजकल दफ़्तर नहींजाताहै |

vahaajkal daftar nahi jaataa hai.

He doesn't go to the office nowadays.

2. मैंने यहकिताब नहींपढ़ी (है) |

Maine yah kithaab nahin padhee(hai).

I have not read this book.

The particle मत mat 'don't' is used with imperative constructions. Itis added in the preverbal position.

3. अखबारमतपढ़ो |

akhbaar mat padho.

Don't read the newspaper.

He doesn't go to the office nowadays.

The negative particle मत matcan be replaced by नna 'no', but it isnot used frequently.

3a. अखबार नपढ़ो |

akhbaar na padho.

Don'tread the newspaper.

3.2. Constituent Negation:

A number of devices are employed to mark constituent negation. The main constituents are the stress and the use of a negative particle after the negated constituent. Sometimes stress is used to negate the constituent.

4. उसेकलपत्नीसेलड़नानहींचाहिएथा |

use kal patni se ladna nahi chahiye thaa.

Heshould not havequarreled with his wifeyesterday.

5. उसे हररोज़शराब नहींपीनीचाहिए|

use har roz saraab nahi peenee chahiye.

He should not drink (liquor) daily.

In sentences (4) and (5), the negated constituents are stressed by stressing the adverbs. The negative marker follows the negated constituent.

6. वह घर नहींगया वह अस्पताल गया |

vah ghar nahi gayaa, vah aspataal gaya.

He did not go home; he went to the hospital.

7. वहखानाखाएबिना कालेज गया |

vah khaanaa khaaye binaa kaalej gaya.

He went to college without eating.

In sentences (6) and (7), the negative markers cannot be replaced byनहींnahi.

The indefinite markers कोई koee 'someone' and कुछ kuch 'something' and the question words कहींभीkahee bhee 'anywhere' and कभीभी kabheebhee 'ever' are also used with negative constituents.

8. कोई लड़का स्कूल नहींगया|

koee ladkaa skool nahi gayaa.

No child went to school.

9. इतने पैसे से कुछ नहीं होगा|

itne paise se kuch nahi hogaa.

This money span class="l_blue_colr">is not sufficient.

10. सरिगा कहीं नहीं गया|

sariha kahee nahi gayaa.

Sariha went nowhere.

11. यह काम कभी भी व्यर्थ नहीं होगा|

yeh kaam kabhee bhee vyarth nahee hogaa.

This work will never go waste.

Participles are also used along with negated constituents.

12. निहा दौड़ते नहीं आया|

nihadoudte nahee aayaa.

Niha did not come running.

The negative prefixes be- and an-, borrowed from Persian(morphological negation) negate the constituent to which they areprefixed.

13. वह बेरहम है|

vah beraham hai.

He is merciless.

14. वह बेदिल काम करता है|

vah bedil kaam kartaa hai.

He works uninterestingly.

3.3. Double/Multiple Negation:

Hindi allows only one negative particle per clause. Double or Multiple negation markers are not used.

15. मैं हैदराबाद नहीं गया हूँ|

Main haidraabaad nahee gayaa hoon.

I have not gone to Hyderabad.

It is, however, possible to use double negation markers for emphasis.

16. मैं मास्को नहीं न गया हूँ|

main masko nahee na gayaa hoon.

I have never gone to Moscow.

3.4. Negation and Coordination:

Negation occurs in coordinate structures as it does in simple sentences. The negative element is not moved to the co-ordinate position unless the identical element is deleted from the second negative conjunct. It is only in the न na … न na 'neither … nor' situation that negative elements are used sentence initially.

17. तानुशिका नौकरी करता है और कारोबार|

na Thanushikanoukaree karta hai aur na karobaar.

Thanushika has neither a job nora business.

17a. सुमथि नौकरी नहीं करता है|

sumathi noukaree nahee karta hai.

Sumathi is not doing a job.

17b. सबरि कारोबार नहीं करता है|

sabari kaarobaar nahee karta hai.

Sabari is not doing a business.

3.5. Negation and Subordination:

With predicates expressing opinion (पताहोना pataa honaa 'to know', expectation/ intention (चाहना chahana'to want'), or perception (लगनाlagana 'to seem' and विचारहोनाvichar hona 'to have an opinion/tothink'), the matrix verb can be negated to express subordinate negation.

18.मुझे पता है किवह नहीं आएगा|

mujhe patahai ki vah nahee aayegaa.

I knowthat he will not come.

19. मुझे लगता है कि आज बारिश नहीं होगी |

mujhe lagta hai ki aaj baarees nahee hogee.

It seems to me that it won't rain today.

20. मैं चाहता हूँ कि वह कारोबार नहीं करे |

Main chahata hoon ki vah karobaar nahee kare.

I don't want him to do business.

21. मेरा विचार है कि उसे वह नौकरी नहीं करनी चाहिए |

Meraa vichar hai ki use vah noukaree nahee karnee chahiye.

In my opinion, he should not take this job.

4. Reflexives sentences:

A reflexive pronoun occupies the same position within a clause as any other type of a pronoun. The only restriction is that the antecedent of a reflexive pronoun must be the subject of its clause. There is no other change except the selection of a dative case marker or a postposition in its use as an indirect object. Emphatic possessive pronouns do not require a co-referential antecedent.

Reflexivity is expressed by the use of agentive reflexive pronouns. This term is used to distinguish between the possessive reflexiveअपना apnaa and non-possessive reflexive अपने आप apne aap 'self'. Ther eflexive अपने आप apne aap represents the main reflexive pronoun, which when followed by a postposition, has the oblique form अपने apne. It also functions as an emphatic pronoun as in (1). The emphatic form is also derived by adding the emphatic suffix -ही –hee to it. The result is आप ही aap hee. The reduplicated form अपने आप apne aap also occurs as a reflexive.

1. अमित आप/अपने आप / आप ही यहाँ आया।

amit aap/apne aap/aap hee yahaan aayaa.

Amit came here by himself.

2. मैं अपने आप खाना बनाता हूँ।

Mei apne aap khaanaa banaataa hoon.

I cook my meals myself.

3. हम अपने आप कपड़े धोते हैं।

ham apne aap kapde dhote hain.

We wash our clothes ourselves.

In possessive structures, the possible reflexive form अपना apnaa 'self' is used in place of possessive pronouns such as the English my and your. When the possessive reflexive is used, the possessor is the same as the agent of the action or the subject. अपना apnaa agrees with the following head NP in number and gender. Following are its forms:

4. वे अपनी / उनकी कमीज़ें धो रहे हैं।

ve apnee/unkee kameeze dho rahe hain.

He is washing his shirts.

5. वह अपना / उसका लाभ जानता हैं।

vah apnaa/uskaa laabh jaantaa hain.

He is aware of his benefit

Similar to nominative and ergative subjects, the dative subject also controls the possessive reflexive अपना apnaa.The possessive structure also permits reduplicated reflexives.

6. वे अपना अपना काम कर रहे हैं।

ve apnaa apnaa kaam kar rahe hain.

They are doing their respective jobs.

5. Reciprocal sentences:

The primary way of expressing a reciprocal relationship is the expression एक दूसरेको ek doosre ko 'to one another'. It is the combination of the cardinal एक ek 'one' and the oblique case form of the ordinal दूसरा doosraa followed by को ko. Reciprocals can also be formed with आपसमें aapas mei 'mutual'. The scope of reciprocity is restricted to the clause.

1. हमने एक दूसरे के साथ बात की।

hamne ek doosre ke saath baat kee.

We talked to each other.

2. उन्होंने एक दूसरे की बहुत सहायता की।

unhone ek doosre kee bahut sahaaytaa kee.

They helped each other very much.

In these sentences, the scope of the reciprocal expression does not extend to the matrix subject.

Reciprocals usually require an antecedent subject. They may be used as a direct object, an indirect object, an adverb, or a possessive adjective in different types of constructions.

Direct object

3. वे एक दूसरे से कई बार मिले।

ve ek doosre se kaee baar mile.

They met each other many times.

Indirect object

4. उन्होंने एक दूसरे को उपहार दिए।

unhone ek doosre ko uphaar diye.

They gave presents to each other.


5. वे एक दूसरे पर ज़ोर से चिल्ला रहे हैं।

ve ek doosre par zor se cillaa rahe hain.

They are shouting at each other.

Possessive adjective

6. हम एक दूसरे के घर नहीं जाते।

ham ek doosre ke ghar nahee jaate.

We don't visit each others houses.

7. वे आपस में बात नहीं करते (हैं)।

ve aapas mei baat nahee karte (hain).

They do not talk to each other.

The same range of reciprocals occur in nominalized clauses.

8. उनका एक दूसरे के घर न जाना ठीक नहीं है।

unkaa ek doosre ke ghar na jaanaa theek nahee hai.

Their not visiting each others homes is not right.

9. उनकी एक दूसरे की टोपियाँ बराबर नहीं हैं।

unkee ek doosre kee topiyan baraabar nahee hain.

Each others caps do not fit them.

It is possible to have reciprocal structures without antecedent, if the antecedent is understood either syntactically, as in the case of imperative constructions, or contextually.

10. एक दूसरे के साथ बातें मत करो।

ek doosre ke saath baate mat karo.

Don't talk to each other.

11. अमित के दो बेटे हैं। वे एक दूसरे के साथ हमेशा लड़ते हैं।

amit ke do bete hain. ve ek doosre ke saath hameshaa ladte hain.

Amit has two sons. (They) always quarrel with each other.

6. Equatives Sentences:

Like comparatives, there are two types of equatives: (i) syntactic and(ii) phrasal. The former type is composed of two clauses called as इतना itnaa 'this much' and उतना utnaa 'that much' clauses. The main difference between these clauses and the comparative clause is that in equative clauses, an equative adjective or adverb is used with the subject and the standard of comparison. A comparative sentence can be transformed into an equative sentence by the deletion of the negative particle.

1. अजय उतना चालाक है जितना उसका भाई (है)।

ajay utnaa chalaak hai jitnaa uskaa bhaaee (hai).

Ajay is as clever as his brother.

Equative structures can also be formed by using the clause जैसा jaisaa

as/which way and वैसा vaisaa like/that way.

2. जैसा अजय चालाक है, उतना उसका भाई ( भी )है।

jaisaa ajay chalaak hai, utnaa uskaa bhaaee (bhee) hai.

Ajay is as clever as his brother.

Phrasal type equatives are formed using adjectives such as बराबर baraabar/समान samaan 'equal', and जीसस jaisaa 'like'. The forms agree with the standard of comparison in number and gender.

3. विजय अपने पिताजी के बराबर्र समान लंबा है।

vijay apne pitaajee ke baraabar/samaan lambaa hai.

Vijay is as tall as his father.

4. ये दो भाई अपनी माँ जैसे सीधे हैं।

ye do bhaaee apnee maan jaise seedhe hain.

These two brothers are as simple as their mother.

5. यह लड़की अपनी बहिन जैसी सुंदर है।

yeh ladkee apnee bahin jaisee sundar hai.

This girl is as beautiful as her sister.

6. ये दो बहिनें अपनी माँ की तरह सुंदर हैं।

ye do bahine apnee maan kee tarah sundar hain.

These two sisters are as beautiful as their mother.

7. विजय बच्चे के समान है।

vijay bacche ke samaan hai.

Vijay is like a child.

8. उमा अनु के बराबर लंबी है।

umaa anu ke baraabar lambee hai.

Uma is as tall as Anu.

Notice that a copular/equational sentence employs only the plural adjectival forms of एक जैसे ek jaise/एक जैसी ek jaisee that agree with the number and gender of the subject of comparison.

9. अजय और विजय एक जैसे ही हैं।

ajay or vijay ek jaise hee hain.

Ajay and Vijay are alike.

10. उमा और अनु एक जैसी हैं।

Umaa or anu ek jaisee hain.

Uma and Anu are alike.

Equative adjectives may be modified by adding the particle –ही –hee to these forms: जैसे ही jaise hee,जैसी ही jaisee hee 'alike'. The particle –ही -hee is also added to singular forms for emphasis as well.

11. विजय अजय जैसा ही है।.

vijay ajay jaisaa hee hai.

Vijay is like Ajay.

12. उमा अनु जैसी ही है।

umaa anu jaisee hee hai.

Uma is like Anu.

A number of fixed adjectival phrases are used in Hindi.

13. फूल सार जैसा कोमल

phool sar/jaisaa komal

as delicate as a flower

14. पत्थर सा दिल

patthar saa dil

a stone-hearted (person)

It is possible to delete the identical elements in equative structures. Deletion is always forward and not backward.

15. उमा उतनी लंबी है जितनी ( लंबी ) अनु ( है )।

umaa utnee lambee hai jitnee (lambee) anu (hai).

Uma is as tall as Anu.

The bracketed elements can be deleted to yield (15a).

15a. उमा उतनी लंबी है जितनी अनु।

umaa utnee lambee hai jitnee anu.

Uma is as tall as Anu.

The backward deletion generates ungrammatical sentences, as (15b).

15b. उमा उतनी जितनी लंबी है।

Umaa utnee jitnee lambee anu hai.

Correlative equatives are formed by syntactic strategy only. They are formed by using the correlative marker उतना utnaa.

7. Comparison Sentences:

Comparison is usually expressed by sentential, phrasal, and morphological strategies. Two types of comparative structures are very common, phrasal comparative structures and non-phrasal ones. Both use postpositions followed by the standards of comparison. Sentential comparison is carried out by the use of two finite clauses introduced by the relative marker उतना utnaa 'as much as' and the correlative marker जितना jitnaa 'that much'.

1. वह उतना सीधा नहीं है इजितना सीधा उसका भाई हैउ।

vah utnaa seedhaa nahee hai[जितना सीधा उसका भाई है]

He is not as simple as his brother.

The relative clause can be placed at the sentence initial position as well.

2. वह जितना परिश्रम करता है उतना पैसा नहीं कमाता।

vah jitnaa parishram kartaa hai utnaa paisaa nahee kamaataa

He doesn't earn as much as he works.

The relative clause can follow the correlative clause.

2a. वह उतना पैसा नहीं कमाता., जितना परिश्रम करता है।

vah utnaa paisaa nahee kamaataa, jitnaa parishram kartaa hai.

Most of the morphological markers of comparison are borrowed from Perso-Arabic sources. They are not very productive in Hindi.

3. उसका वहाँ जाना बेहतर रहेगा।

Uskaa vahaan jaanaa behtar rahegaa.

It is better for him to go there.

4. यह उसके लिए बदतरीन बात है।

yah uske liye badtareen baat hai.

This is the worst thing for him.

Phrasal comparison is expressed by a postposition associated with the standard of comparison. The postposition से se is added to the standard of comparison.

5. अमित अनु से लंबा है।

amit anoo se lambaa hai.

Amit is taller than Anu.

6. अनु उमा से गोरी है।

anu umaa se goree hai.

Anu is more fair-complexioned than Anu.

The phrasal comparison is also expressed by the use of the phrase के मुकाबले में ke mukaable mei 'in comparison with' following the standard of comparison.

7. विजय के मुकाबले में राज पढ़ने में कमज़ोर है।

vjay ke mukaable mei raaj padhne mei kamzor hai.

Raj is weak in his studies in comparison to Vijay.

8. वह पेड़ इस पेड़ के मुकाबले में लंबा नहीं है।

vah ped is ped ke mukaable mei lambaa nahee hai.

That tree is not taller than this tree.

9. उस लड़की के मुकाबले में यह लड़की बुद्धिमान है।

us ladkee ke mukaable mei yah ladkee buddhimaan hai.

This girl is wiser than that girl.

Adjectives used in a comparison can be modified by the adverb of degree अधिक adhik more.

10. यह घर उस घर से अधिक बड़ा है।

yeh ghar us ghar se adhik badaa hai.

This house is bigger than that one.

11. वह पुस्तक इस पुस्तक से अधिक अच्छी है।

vah pustak is pustak se adhik acchee hai.

This house is bigger than that one.

When two sentences are joined, the identical elements in the second conjunct are usually deleted. Whereas forward deletion is possible, backward deletion is not.

12. अमित उतना चालाक नहीं है जितना (चालाक) उसका भाई है।

amit utnaa chalaak nahee hai jitnaa (chalaak) uskaa bhaaee hai.

Amit is not as clever as his brother.

12a. अमित उतना नहीं है जितना उसका भाई चालाक है।

amit utnaa nahee hai jitnaa uskaa bhaaee chalaak hai.

The deletion of the first occurrence of चालाक chalaakin sentence (12a) results in the sentence being grammatically incorrect. The relative correlative markers जितना jitnaa उतना utna cannot be deleted under any circumstance.

8. Superlatives Sentences:

Superlatives are usually expressed by substituting सब से अधिक sab se adhik 'most', सर्वोतम sarvotam 'best', or हर एक में से har ek mei se 'out of all' for the standard of comparison. Superlative constructions are also formed by the use of कोई दूसरा koee doosra anyone else' plus the negative particle.

1. अमित कक्षा में सब से अधिक बुद्धिमान है।

amit kaksha mei sab se adhik buddhimaan hai.

Amit is wisest of all in his class.

2. उमा सब से अधिक तेज़ दौड़ती है।

umaa sab se adhik tez dodtee hai.

Uma runs faster than everyone else.

3. विजय से चतुर और कोई दूसरा नहीं है।

vijay se catur or koee doosraa nahee hai.

No one else is moreclever than Vijay.

Superlative constructions are also formed by substituting an adjective of comparison for सब से अधिक sab se adhik.. It also serves as the standard of comparison.

4. वह बड़ी से बड़ी समस्या आसनी से हल करता है।

vah badee se badee samasyaa aasaanee se hal kartaa hai.

He solves the biggest problems easily.

5. हमारे पास अच्छे से अच्छा कपड़ा यही है।

hamaare paas acche se acchaa kapdaa yahee hai.

This is the best cloth we have.

Notice that in these constructions, the first part of the phrase is put inthe oblique case as it is followed by से se.

9. Coordination Sentences:

Sentence coordination is marked mainly by the use of the conjunction morphemes ओर or 'and' या yaa 'or', and मगर magar/पर par/किंतु kintu 'but'.

1. मैं दिल्ली गया और मेरा भाई आगरा (गया)।

Mei dillee gayaa aur meraa bhaaee agraa (gayaa).

I went to Delhi and my brother went to Agra.

2. सोहन मोहन के घर गया मगर/ पर/ किंतु मोहन घर पर नहीं था |

sohan mohan ke ghar gayaa magar/par/kintu mohan ghar par nahee thaa.

Sohan went to Mohans home, but Mohan was not there.

The conjunction morpheme ओर or 'and' can be followed by another particle, भी bhee 'also'.

3. मोहन कल बनारस जाएगा और सोहन भी (जाएगा)।

mohan kal banaaras jaayegaa or sohan bhee (jaayegaa).

Mohan will go to Banaras tomorrow and Mohan will also go.

The conjunction compound morphemes या yaa -या -yaa 'either – or'are also used in sentence conjunctions.

4. या आज वर्षा होगी या हिमपात होगा।

Yaa aaj varshaa hogee yaa himpaat hogaa.

Either it rains today or it will snow.

Notice that the word-order of the constituent sentences undergo's a change when conjoined by the use of the conjunction morphemes या- या - yaa - yaa. Sentence (4) is obtained by conjoining (4a) and (4b).

4a. आज वर्षा होगी।

aaj varshaa hogee.

It will rain today.

4b. आज हिमपात होगा।

aaj himpaat hogaa.

It will snow today.

And coordination is commonly expressed by the conjunction marker ओर or. It can join two or more sentences or phrases. This conjunction morpheme occurs before the last conjunct.

5. शीला किताब पढ़ रही है और उमा चिट्ठी लिख रही है।

sheelaa kitaab padh rahee hai or umaa citthiee likh rahee hai.

Shiela is reading a book and Uma is writing a letter.

6. अमर खेल रहा है, मोहन गाने सुन रहा है और शाम टी वी देख रहा है |

amar khel rahaa hai, mohan gaane sun rahaa hai, or shaam teevee dekh rahaa hai.

Amar is playing, Mohan is listening to songs, and Sham is watching television.

Coordination does not merely involve juxtaposition of two or more independent sentences. There are various syntactic and semantic constraints on the construction of coordinate structures. In general, coordinate sentences express contrast, cumulative effect, cause and effect, sequential action, and contingency. Again, the order of the conjuncts is interchangeable if a coordinate sentence expresses contrast or cumulative effect. Consider the following examples of various types of coordinate structures as listed above.

9.1. Coordination and Accompaniment:

Accompaniment is expressed by the postposition साथ saath with or in the company of. It can also be expressed by the conjunction morpheme ओर or and.

7. सोहन और मोहन आए।

sohan or mohan aaye.

Sohan and Mohan came.

7a. सोहन मोहन के साथ आया।

sohan mohan ke saath aayaa.

Sohan came with Mohan.

Sentence (7) is an example of coordination, whereas sentence (7a) denotes accompaniment. Notice that the accompaniment uses a singular verb as in (7a). A single unit cannot be formed using accompaniment, but can be formed by using coordination. The term दोनों dono 'both' can, therefore, be used with coordination, but not with accompaniment.

7b. सोहन और मोहन दोनों आए।

sohan or mohan dono aaye.

Sohan and Mohan both came.

7c. ह्सोहन मोहन के साथ आया दोनों।

sohan mohan ke saath aayaa dono.

The unity of the conjoined phrase cannot be distorted, and this unity is expressed only by coordination and not by accompaniment.

7d. बेटा पिता के साथ आया।

sbedaa pitaa ke saath aayaa.

The son came with the father.

The commutative postposition के साथ ke saath follows the noun of accompaniment. It is possible to form coordinate sentences using theco-ordinate conjunction ओर or the comitative postposition साथ saath in one of the conjuncts.

8. अजीत और मोहन अमर के साथ जाएँगे।

ajeet or mohan amar ke saath jaayenge.

Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

8a. अमर के साथ अजीत और मोहन जाएँगे।

amar ke saath ajeet ør mohan jaayenge.

Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

9.2. Structural Constraints:

There are various structural constraints in coordination. In general, members in the same class can be conjoined but not those that belong to different classes.

Adjective and noun

9. वह सुंदर और लड़की है।

vah sundar or ladkee hai.

she is beautiful and girl.

9a. वह सुंदर और बुद्धिमान लड़की है।

vah sundar or budhimaan ladkee hai.

She is a beautiful and an intelligent girl.

Adjective and adverb

10. यह कपड़ा अच्छा और कल है।

yeh kapdaa acchaa or kal hai.

this cloth good and yesterday is

10a. यह कपड़ा अच्छा और सस्ता है।

yeh kapdaa acchaa or sastaa hai.

This cloth is good and inexpensive.

As exemplified above in sentences (9) and (10), it is not possible to conjoin adjectives and nouns, nor adjectives and adverbs. Other types of constraints are indicated below. Present and past participles and adjectives can be conjoined using coordinate conjunction morphemes.

11. अमित पढ़ा - लिखा और शरीफ लड़का है।

Amit padhaa - likhaa or shareeph ladkaa hai.

Amit is an educated and a gentle boy.

Similarly, it is possible to conjoin the conjuncts with adverbialconstruction and an adjective phrase.

12. मेरा मित्र शहर में रहता है और बहुत चालाक है।

meraa mitr shahar mei rahtaa hai or bahut chalaak hai.

My friend lives in the city and is clever.

A relative clause and an adjective phrase cannot be conjoined.

12a. जो शहर में रहता है और बहुत चालाक है।

jo shahar mei rahtaa hai aur bahut chalaak mitr hai.

who city-abl is live-pr is and clever friend tomorrow

Nouns and nominalized constructions can be conjoined, provided the semantic and pragmatic conditions are met.

13. उसे उपन्यास पढ़ना और नाटक देखना पसंद है।

use upanyaas padhnaa or naadak dekhnaa pasand hai.

He likes to read novels and watch plays.

14. मैंने उसे और उसके घर को सपने में देखा।

maine use or uske ghar ko sapne mei dekhaa.

I saw him and his house in the dream.

It is possible to coordinate related adverbials in a coordinated structure.

15. वह हँसते - हँसते और जल्दी हर एक काम करता है।

vah hanste - hanste or jaldee har ek kaam kartaa hai.

He gives his opinion smilingly and quickly.

Time adverbials and manner adverbials cannot be conjoined.

16. वह कल रोया ओर ज़ोर – ज़ोर से |

vah kal royaa or zor - zor se.

he yesterday wept and loudly